Schuchardt’s “Against the Neogrammarians”, both in the original German and translated into English…

Following up on the Vennemann “Phonetic analogy and conceptual analogy” and “Getting to know Schuchardt” posts, I now present Schuchardt’s own take on “phonetic analogy and conceptual analogy” in his own words. It is presented below both in the original German and in an English translation (made by Venneman and Wilbur in 1972).

Schuchardt, Hugo. 1885. Uber die Lautesetze: Gegen die Junggrammatiker. Berlin: Oppenheim. (Reprinted and translated as On Sound Laws: Against the Neogrammarians in Vennemann, Theo, and Terence H. Wilbur (Eds.), Schuchardt, the Neogrammarians, and the Transformational Theory of phonological change: Four essays. Frankfort, Athenaum.)

English: http://www.ling.osu.edu/~ddurian/AWAC/Schuchardt_1885.pdf

German: http://www.ling.osu.edu/~ddurian/AWAC/Schuchardt_orig_1885.pdf

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Getting to know Hugo Schuchardt (part 1)

This article, by John Fought, provides a nice summary explanation of why sociolinguists in 2010 should get to know, and dig, the work of Hugo Schuchardt (b. 1842-d. 1927).

Fought, John. 1982. The reinvention of Hugo Schuchardt. Language in Society, 11.3: 419-436. http://www.jstor.org/pss/4167331

See also:

Wikipedia listing for Hugo Schuchardt http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugo_Schuchardt

Hugo Schuchardt Archive (Translated) http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=http://schuchardt.uni-graz.at/&ei=E0x8TI3yIZSRnweB1b2TCw&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=2&sqi=2&ved=0CCwQ7gEwAQ&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dhugo%2Bschuchardt%26hl%3Den%26prmd%3Dio

Analogy, take 4: Schuchardt and Vennemann’s phonetic analogy and conceptual analogy

Following on from Joseph’s (to appear) discussion, as well as earlier postings concerning analogy and sound change (Take One, Two, and Three), here is a 4th take on the role of analogy in sound change. This time around, it’s Theo Vennemann building on concepts originally introduced by Hugo Schuchardt (1885): phonetic analogy and conceptual analogy.

As I mentioned earlier, my dissertation will investigate the possible role analogy plays in processes such as parallel shifts. As discussed by Joseph (to appear), my vision of the role analogy plays in the process, as initially demonstrated in Durian (2009),  is very much like the one discussed by Vennemann in his  article “Phonetic analogy and conceptual analogy” from 1972. Given the connection, I have included Vennemann’s discussion here.

Vennemann, Theo. 1972b. Phonetic analogy and conceptual analogy. In Vennemann, Theo, and Terence H. Wilbur (Eds.), Schuchardt, the Neogrammarians, and the Transformational Theory of phonological change: Four essays. Frankfort, Athenaum. p. 181-204. http://ling.osu.edu/~ddurian/AWAC/vennemann 1972b.pdf

See also:

Durian, David. 2009. Purely a chain shift? The “Canadian Shift” in the US Midland. Paper presented at NWAV 38, Ottawa, Canada. http://www.ling.osu.edu/~ddurian/CLCC/Presentations.html

Schuchardt, Hugo. 1885. Uber die Lautesetze: Gegen die Junggrammatiker. Berlin: Oppenheim. (Reprinted and translated as On Sound Laws: Against the Neogrammarians in Vennemann, Theo, and Terence H. Wilbur (Eds.), Schuchardt, the Neogrammarians, and the Transformational Theory of phonological change: Four essays. Frankfort, Athenaum.) http://www.ling.osu.edu/~ddurian/AWAC/Schuchardt_1885.pdf

Strange bedfellows or natural friends? Sociolinguistics and historical linguistics

Here’s a quite interesting and quite recent “thought piece” by Brian Joseph, one which I think all readers of this blog should give a serious read and consideration. And also hopefully one readers will choose to comment on…

Why you ask? Because it raises  a number of thought provoking questions and offers an intriguing series of thoughts on a number of issues that tend to be of concern to sociolinguists who focus on language change which differ from the views we so often take as “a given” in the year 2010 in our field.

As the author himself states: “In what follows, I aim to see what points of similarity and difference there are between these two commonly paired concerns [sociolinguistics and historical linguistics]– note the very terms “socio-historical linguistics” / “historical sociolinguistics”, after all – with an ultimate goal of determining if the coupling of the two is, as the title suggests, the result of joint membership in a natural class or is instead a forced marriage.

In the course of so doing, I re-examine and to some extent debunk, or at least attempt to debunk, a number of concepts that both historical linguistics and sociolinguistics hold dear. In many instances, I pose questions about notions and practices without necessarily offering answers. In the spirit of Socrates’ adage about the unexamined life, my hope is that asking the right questions is helpful even if clear answers are not offered.

Some of what follows may seem obvious and maybe even trivial to the intended audience of sociolinguists, historical linguists, and social historians, but my intent is in part to call attention here to some shortcuts that practicing socio-historical linguists routinely use. In this way, we can be sure that we are aware of what we are doing when we employ them. I see two important reasons for doing this. First, it is sometimes the case that practitioners can be deluded or deceived in the worst case or just even distracted by their own terminology and their own practices, so that raising questions can be a way of heightening awareness. Second, there is always a risk that others outside our subfield might adopt (and then alter or misconstrue) our practices without fully understanding why we do what we do, and being explicit about the practices can thus be a safeguard against that.”

Having hopefully interested you in wanting to read more, I present a link to the entirety of Joseph’s piece, below…

Joseph, Brian D. To appear (2011). Historical linguistics and sociolinguistics: Strange bedfellows or natural friends? In Langer, Nils, Steffan Davies, and Wim Vandenbussche (Eds.), Language and history, linguistics and historiography. Proceedings from the 3rd Summer School in Historical Sociolinguistics, as Organized by the Historical Sociolinguistics Network (HiSoN) with the support of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, University of Adger and the University of Bristol.

http://www.ling.osu.edu/~ddurian/AWAC/Joseph_2011.pdf

LCRL (1968) added to the LWAA

Both volumes of the 1968 out of print/not so widely available report A study of the Non-Standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican speakers in New York City by Labov, Cohen,  Robins, and Lewis is now available as a full cover to cover PDF scan on the LWAA.

Quick links to both volumes are included below.

Labov, William, Paul Cohen, Clarence Robins, and John Lewis. 1968. A study of the Non-Standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican speakers in New York City. Volume I: Phonological and grammatical analysis. Cooperative Research Project No. 3288. New York City: Columbia University. http://www.ling.osu.edu/~ddurian/AWAC/LWAA/LCRL_NYC_1968_V1.pdf

Labov, William, Paul Cohen, Clarence Robins, and John Lewis. 1968. A study of the Non-Standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican speakers in New York City. Volume II: The use of language in the community. Cooperative Research Project No. 3288. New York City: Columbia University. http://www.ling.osu.edu/~ddurian/AWAC/LWAA/LCRL_NYC_1968_V2.pdf

Another perspective on chain shifting

This article, by Stockwell and Minkova, presents quite a bit different perspective on chain shifts, particularly the Great Vowel Shift and the Northern Cities Shift, than the one (or ones, in the case of the GVS) most variationists are typically most familiar with. As Matt Gordon also mentioned last week, it contains within it another (albeit brief) critique of Labov’s use of the Trager & Smith notation, as well.

Stockwell, Robert, and Donka Minkova. 1997. On drifts and shifts. Studia Anglica Posnaniensia, 31:283-303. http://www.ling.osu.edu/~ddurian/AWAC/Stockwell_Minkova_1997.pdf

Is the Northern Cities Shift a chain shift?

Following up on my earlier post concerning chain shifts vs. parallel shifts and how they work, here’s an interesting perspective on the chain shift part of things from Matt Gordon, taken from his (2000) study Small-town values and big-city vowels. This chapter is definitely worth checking out for those of you who work on vowel shifts, as it provides a different perspective on the NCS than “received wisdom” sources such as Labov (1994) or Labov, Ash and Boberg (2006), It definitely provides some food for thought.

See my related post regarding an alternative perspective on the Canadian Shift, as offered by Charles Boberg in a 2005 LVC article, and later Durian in a 2009 NWAV presentation, as well as his forthcoming dissertation.

Gordon, Matthew. 2000.Is the Northern Cities Shift a chain shift? Small-town values and big-city vowels: A study of the Northern Cities Shift in Michigan. Publication of the American Dialect Society, 80. Durham: Duke University Press. pp. 194-219. http://www.ling.osu.edu/~ddurian/AWAC/Gordon_2000_Ch6.pdf

Analogy: A third take

This time round I have selected a reading that follows up on the previous two posts (Wagner; Hock) regarding analogy. In this third post, we find a more general discussion of analogy, this time focused on analogy as cognition process. Although not explicitly focused on sound change like the earlier posts, I believe Anttila raises a number of relevant points to consider, regardless.

Anttila, Raimo. 2003. Analogy: The warp and woof of cognition. In Joseph, Brian D., and Richard D. Janda (Eds.), The handbook of historical linguistics. Oxley: Blackwell. pp. 425-440.

http://books.google.com/books?id=JvPnS0ViGl4C&pg=PA425&lpg=PA425&dq=Analogy:+The+warp+and+woof+of+cognition&source=bl&ots=l2uweyaDdi&sig=pNFFGpIxM5-p28ZPerk0Nf1D-5U&hl=en&ei=oLRpTPLCLITfnAej3vzCBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Analogy%3A%20The%20warp%20and%20woof%20of%20cognition&f=false

John Wells’s Blog

Definitely some great sound change topics discussed here, as well as material relevant to phonetic variation more generally. Something definitely to check out…

http://phonetic-blog.blogspot.com/

Transmission and continuation: 1950’s style

Before Labov took on the issues of transmission and continuation in Sociolinguistic Patterns (1972), Principles of Linguistic Change, Vol 2 (2001), and this 2007 Language article, Charles Hockett took them on in a 1950 Language article. It’s also known as an oft-cited article on age-grading. Makes for an interesting read, if you are interested in the history of research on these topics.

Hockett, Charles. 1950. Age-grading and linguistic continuity. Language, 26:449-457.  http://www.jstor.org/pss/410396

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